There is really no puzzle why Gina Lopez is struggling to hold onto her job as the Philippine secretary of the environment. On her first day in the post last July she dispatched inspectors to see how faithfully the countryâ€™s 40 large hardrock mines, 27 of them nickel ore producers, adhered to national environmental law and regulation.
The Philippines is one of the worldâ€™s largest nickel ore producers and exporters. Global nickel ore prices soared on the news of Lopezâ€™s order, with the expectation that the countryâ€™s go-go industry would be shackled. Mining stocks plunged.
In August, with early findings in hand of rampant air and water quality violations, Lopez suspended operating permits for 10 mines, most of them nickel producers. Lopez said her concern for Philippine watersheds, the â€œmadnessâ€ of rapacious open pit mining, and the consequences to rural communities justified the audit campaign. â€œI want to make it clear I have no beef with the mining industry,â€ Lopez said at a news conference. â€œBut I am vehemently against the adverse effects that may happen, that are happening in some of the situations.â€œ
Lopez then took on coal miners and the coal-fired utility sector, which accounts for over 40 percent of the countryâ€™s electrical generating capacity. She called on her government colleagues to put coal-fired power aside and more aggressively pursue the 7,700 megawatts of renewable generating capacity that were proposed in a 2015 government plan.
â€œIâ€™m going renewable because itâ€™s for the Filipino people,â€ she said to reporters. â€œIf they benefit, well, other people can also benefit. My thing to the businessmen, go renewable so you can also benefit.â€
The Philippine Energy Secretary Alfonso Cusi wasnâ€™t so enthusiastic. â€œWe cannot just discount coal,” Cusi fired back.
It is not at all clear, though, how much longer Lopezâ€™s green crusade will survive. Nine months after she joined the Duterte government, Lopezâ€™s mine audit program certainly produced globally important results. With evidence of wanton disregard for safeguards to air and water, Lopez ordered 26 mines closed. She also suspended 75 of the countryâ€™s 339 mining licenses.
One of the affected projects is the proposed $US 5.9 billion Tampakan copper and gold mine on the southern Island of Mindanao. Lopezâ€™s orders mirrored similar recent directiives to control mining pollution. In 2014 the National Green Tribunal shut down northeast Indiaâ€™s coal mines in Meghalaya. Earlier this year El Salvador banned gold mining.
Called Before A Review Panel
I first became interested in Lopez last summer when I heard about her appointment and learned about President Duterte’s green streak. In her first months in office Lopez exhibited a passion and fearlessness that is all too rare among the world’s environmental secretaries. With Duterte’s consistent applause her position appeared secure.
But in March, following months of protest from mining executives and other critics, her job security began to be weighed by a high-profile legislative group that reviews presidential cabinet appointments. After two days of questioning, the 25-member Commission on Appointments, which includes legislators backed by the mining industry, declined to approve Lopez as environment secretary.
Neither did the commission reject her position. Instead, it â€œbypassedâ€ the Lopez decision until early May, when the panel meets again.
If the commission rejects her appointment President Duterte can formally reappoint Lopez. But the president, who until March had consistently backed Lopez, has not said what he will do. Media reports in Manila said the president is upset by news coverage of his administration by ABS-CBN, the television network owned by Lopezâ€™s family. Ernesto Abella, a presidential spokesman told reporters that Duterteâ€™s denunciations of ABS-CBN and his support of Lopez â€œare two separate matters.â€
Not surprisingly critics and supporters weighed in. The Philippines Chamber of Mines, which filed a formal statement of opposition with the commission, wants Lopez removed from office. “Secretary Lopez is not qualified for the job,” said Ronald Recidoro, the group’s vice president for legal and policy, in a television interview.
The Catholic Church, Philippine environmental groups, and many rural village leaders across the country are campaigning in support of the environment secretary. â€œIf the Commission on Appointments rejects Ms. Lopez, it is a clear indicator that current political leaders are not serious in carrying out needed and measurable reforms in environmental conservation,â€ said Vince Cinches, a political campaigner for Greenpeace Philippines, in an email message to Circle of Blue. â€œThe rejection will symbolize how the dirty industries, especially the extractive industry that has been influencing Philippine political economy for a long time, is still as strong as ever.â€
Age of Disruption
Near the end of its second decade one word has come to define the 21st century â€“ disruption. Gina Lopezâ€™s tenure as Philippine environment secretary demonstrates the point.
A Pacific island nation of 102 million residents, the Philippines is experiencing one of the fastest rates of economic growth in the world, due in part to development of its forests, fisheries, and minerals. Large expanses of biologically diverse land and water are affected, as are hundreds of rural communities. Until the Duterte administration, the countryâ€™s development decisions focused on job growth and typically tilted to felling forests or opening mines.
Philippine authorities, seeing the countryâ€™s changing ecology, are now reconsidering their economic priorities. The island nation sits in the path of extreme weather events that are growing more numerous and deadly. Five of the 10 deadliest typhoons that struck the Philippines since 1947 have occurred since 2006, according to the Climate Reality Project. Typhoon Haiyan, the deadliest, killed 6,300 people in 2013, forced 4 million residents from their homes, and caused $US 2 billion in damage.
Similarly dangerous climate conditions occur all across the world now. Storms, droughts, flooding, abnormal heat, and sea level rise are influencing harvests, energy markets, urban development, and human migration patterns. Truculent weather is a big factor in the market disarray and political instability that is overtaking nations on every continent.
National leaders are reacting with exceptionally aggressive steps. In the United States, President Donald Trumpâ€™s plan to achieve economic stability is to push hard to expand fossil fuel production and repeal protections for air and water. In the Philippines, President Rodrigo Duterte, whose bloody pursuit of drug traffickers has attracted global attention, did the opposite.
Duterte turned out to be an ardent land and water conservationist. After decades of lackadaisical enforcement Duterte alerted the Philippine industrial sector that he would enforce existing environmental law. Duterte appointed Lopez, a respected 63-year-old foundation executive and environmentalist, as his environment secretary because he marveled at her knowledge and fearlessness. Duterte also embraced her view that watersheds and his nationâ€™s prodigious ecological bounty are base resources that support the countryâ€™s 21st century economy.
“I can forego the 40 billion pesos ($US 800 million) I collect from you,â€ Duterte told mining executives last August in a news conference. â€œFilipinos will survive without you. Either you follow strict government standards or you close.”
Based on reporting and opinion in Philippine newspapers and on television news, public sentiment for Lopez to keep her job outweighs the opposition. More than 3,000 people demonstrated in Manila last month in support of the suddenly embattled environment secretary.
â€œConfirmation of the incumbent secretary is a matter of both urgency and continuity for environmental reforms,â€ said Greenpeace Philippines in a statement. â€œItâ€™s one sign that the Duterte administration is actually committed to its promise of positive change over the greed of the few that has for many years ravaged the environment and the lives of the Filipino people.â€
— Keith Schneider